Please select your home edition
Edition
Pantaenius EU 728x90

West Coast waters grow more productive with shift toward cooler conditions

by NOAA Fisheries 16 Mar 11:07 UTC
The ocean off the West Coast is shifting from several years of unusually warm conditions, toward a cooler and more productive regime that may boost salmon returns and populations of other ocean predators, according to a new NOAA Fisheries report. © NOAA Fisheries

The ocean off the West Coast is shifting from several years of unusually warm conditions marked by the marine heat wave known as the "warm blob," toward a cooler and more productive regime that may boost salmon returns and populations of other ocean predators, though it is too early to say for certain, a new NOAA Fisheries report says.

The 2019 ecosystem status report for the California Current Ecosystem that was presented to the Pacific Fishery Management Council this week notes overall increases in commercial fishery landings and revenues (with a few notable exceptions), as well as higher numbers and growth of California sea lions and some seabirds.

"This is a time of transition in the California Current Ecosystem, and the ocean and marine life reflect that," said Chris Harvey, an ecologist at the Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, and co-editor of the report. "What we don't know yet is where the transition will take us whether the system will stabilize, or keep changing."

The report cautions against expecting a return to "normal," given the continuing wide variability of conditions in recent years. This perspective echoes other recent reports from around the world that note the increasing frequency of climatic disturbances is making it hard for ecosystems to recover before being knocked out of whack again.

Putting the clues together

The annual report tracks a series of species, and climate and ocean conditions, as barometers of ocean health and productivity and also draws on economic indicators that reflect the state of West Coast communities. The report, now in its seventh year, informs Pacific Fishery Management Council and NOAA Fisheries managers as they develop fishing seasons and limits.

The report, as part of an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, also supports NOAA Fisheries' shift toward ecosystem-based fishery management, which considers interactions throughout the marine food web rather than focusing on a single species.

"Pulling all the indicators together into a picture of how the ecosystem is changing can also give us clues about what to expect going forward," said Toby Garfield, director of the Environmental Research Division at the Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, Calif., and co-editor of the report.

While many indicators have turned positive, some signs remain of the warmer and less productive conditions that have dominated off the West Coast starting about 2014. They include still-warm waters to the south, and low-oxygen conditions to the north, which may affect the productivity of some fish and marine mammals.

The report also considers shifts in groundfish concentrations along the coast. The data reveal that communities experience stock recoveries and declines in different ways. For example, populations of black cod, one of the more valuable stocks on the west coast, have declined substantially. However, a southward shift in the black cod population has hit Oregon fishing communities like Astoria and Coos Bay doubly hard. Further south, the population shift has actually softened the blow for some California fishing communities.

Salmon Outlook: Not out of the woods yet

The report forecasts low returns of Chinook salmon to the Columbia River this year, as the last survivors that entered the ocean during the warm years return to spawn. However, the outlook beyond this year points to the potential for higher returns as salmon in the ocean now benefit from the improved conditions.

Researchers reported evidence of that when they sampled juvenile salmon off the Northwest Coast last year and found some of the highest numbers of coho salmon they had ever seen. That suggests that the negative impacts of the "marine heatwave" on salmon have subsided, the report says, although not all the indicators have fully recovered.

This year's report also added a new indicator of available forage in the ecosystem: the size of krill off Northern California. Small, shrimp-like organisms, krill help support the marine food web, feeding salmon and other species. Scientists found that krill shrank by almost one-third their length during the warm years, reflecting the lower productivity. They have since regained much of that size and are more abundant, reflecting more productive conditions in recent years.

Related Articles

Plastic bag leads to death of a young beaked whale
Off Florida's East Coast Biologists with the Florida Atlantic University Harbor Branch Marine Mammal Stranding Team responded to a dead whale reported Sunday off Ft. Pierce. Posted on 15 Jun
Celebrating Sea Turtle Week 2019
A message from Donna Wieting, Director of NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources. It is my pleasure to welcome you to Sea Turtle Week 2019. Every day, NOAA scientists and resource managers collaborate with partners across the globe to conserve and recover protected species as part of our mission. Posted on 10 Jun
Students head to Woods Hole for summer of science
PEP is a project of the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative Sixteen students from colleges and universities around the country will arrive in Woods Hole on June 1 for the summer. All will be members of the 11th class of the Woods Hole Partnership Education Program (PEP), which was started in 2009. Posted on 1 Jun
Alaska SeaLife Center responds to elephant seals
Elephant seals are rare species for the Center's Wildlife Response Team The Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC) responded to two juvenile northern elephant seals hauled out on the shores of Seward, Alaska. Since opening in 1998, the ASLC has responded to eleven elephant seals in the state. Posted on 30 May
Aerial images document orca's decline
Scientists collect aerial images of Southern Residents, documenting changes in their body condition Continued research on endangered Southern Resident killer whales has become critical for understanding the health of individual whales and the population. Posted on 27 May
Aleutian Islands are a hotspot for sea life
A remarkable place, with a rich diversity of life The Aleutian Islands are a remarkable place, with a rich diversity of life. Here are six cool facts about this remote area of Alaska. Posted on 26 May
Motherload: The story of a fertile turtle
Researchers track a female green sea turtle's nesting journey In early October 2018, Hurricane Walaka formed quickly and headed straight toward French Frigate Shoals, an atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This atoll is made up of several tiny islets, some of which are highly dynamic. Posted on 25 May
Hawaiian monk seal rehab and recovery
NOAA work with partners in an effort to recover the species Hawaiian monk seals are the only seal species found in the Hawaiian Islands. They are also one of the most endangered seals in the world. Posted on 24 May
Alaska Salmon Travels - Post 4
Join Alaska Fisheries SC in attempt to better understand hatchery-reared salmon marine survival The marking process has been surprisingly smooth, especially since most of the crew (including me) are new to the tagging game. Posted on 11 May
Celebrating 'Earth Day' every day
Celebrating Earth's ecosystem by engaging and educating communities There are a variety of opportunities to do outreach and education during this important campaign. Over the years, we've been fortunate to partner with the Waikiki Aquarium to provide our messaging to eager event goers. Posted on 9 May
Zhik 2018 Yacht 728x90 BOTTOMMarine Resources 2019 - FooterSailing Holidays 2019 - BOTTOM