Please select your home edition
Edition
SWC newsletters (top)

New publication highlights whale shark movements in the Gulf of Mexico

by NOAA Fisheries 19 Jan 17:03 UTC
Whale shark swimming and feeding at surface during a June 2010 feeding aggregation at Ewing Bank. Photos and video taken under NOAA research permit. © Eric Hoffmayer

Whale sharks are known to occur in the northern Gulf of Mexico waters during summer and fall months. However, for years biologists have wondered where whale sharks go when they aren't feeding along the continental shelf in the northern Gulf during this time.

The shelf edge provides food for whale sharks like plankton and fish eggs, but when they venture away from the shelf—where do they go? NOAA shark scientist Eric Hoffmayer knows! His work is published in this month's Frontiers in Marine Science.

The article outlines the seasonal occurrence of whale sharks in the northern Gulf based on more than 800 sightings from 1989 to 2016. It also looks at the movements of whale sharks tagged for this study.

Hoffmayer and colleagues tagged whale sharks to find out where they go and to better understand their travel patterns. Forty-two whale sharks were tagged in the northern Gulf between 2008 and 2014 and scientists studied their movements for up to a year. The satellite tags used in this study communicate the location of the tagged animal to one or more satellites. That information can then be accessed by the researchers, allowing them to determine the path of movement, or track, of the tagged animal.

Most of the whale shark sightings took place during the summer and fall. The largest number of animals were seen off Ewing Bank, a known aggregation site off the coast of Louisiana. The whale shark track duration ranged from three to 366 days. Animals ranged in size from 14 to 39 feet. All of the whale sharks stayed within the Gulf of Mexico. Much of their time spent away from the known feeding area was in open ocean waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

So why is it important for scientists to know where whale sharks go and how they get there? For the proper management and conservation of this species, biologists need to have a better understanding of their movements and habitat use patterns. This is especially true since they routinely spend time in Mexican and Cuban waters. The results of this study were limited to the duration the tags remained on the sharks. Biologists surmise their movements far exceed what was documented. By further documenting the range of this whale shark population, scientists will be able to assess any potential threats that may impact them within their range.

The next big steps are to further document the importance of Ewing Bank to this whale shark population and monitor their longer term, multi-year movements in the region. Our guess is that their migratory patterns occur over 2-3 year periods. Longer term tag retention will help to explain these movements and possibly demonstrate movements into distant waters.

Hoffmayer's research was conducted in partnership with NOAA colleagues and:

Whale shark facts:
  • They are not whales, but the world's largest fish species, reaching up to 46 feet and nearly 24,000 pounds.
  • Whale sharks are filter feeders, opportunistically feeding on plankton, krill, fish eggs, and small fish. They have more than 3,000 tiny teeth, but they are not used for feeding.
  • Whale sharks can grow to a very old age. The oldest documented whale shark is 75 years old, but it is thought that they can live well past 100 years.
  • They are slow swimmers, but their large size allows them to potentially migrate long distances.
  • Whale sharks give birth to live young.
  • Whale sharks are considered endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
  • There are four whale sharks living in captivity at the Georgia Aquarium.

Related Articles

Rescuing thousands of sea turtles in Texas
Learn about the heroic efforts to rescue and recover cold stunned sea turtles The recent historic winter storm put much of the United States into a deep freeze. The cold snap stunned thousands of sea turtles in Texas. A massive statewide effort to save these threatened and endangered animals began on Valentine's Day weekend. Posted on 6 Mar
Killer Whale Tales' reach extends around the world
A teacher engages students with the wonder of the Southern Residents Cancellation of field trips, limited in-person classes, and other restrictions drastically changed what school looked like in 2020. Posted on 28 Feb
11 cool whale, dolphin, and porpoise facts
These animals are often referred to as "sentinels" of ocean health Marine mammals in the cetacean family include whales, dolphins, and porpoises. These animals are often referred to as "sentinels" of ocean health, providing insight into marine ecosystem dynamics. Posted on 21 Feb
North Atlantic Right Whale Calving Season 2021
The North Atlantic right whale population has been declining for the past decade The critically endangered North Atlantic right whale population has been declining for the past decade. With fewer than 400 whales left, researchers closely monitor the southeastern United States for new offspring during the calving season. Posted on 20 Feb
Coastal surveys reveal marine success stories
Data show harbor porpoise comeback and last chance for endangered turtles The Southwest Fisheries Science Center began some of our first regular aerial surveys off the coast of California in 1986. We wanted to answer a basic question: How many harbor porpoises lived along the coast, and were their numbers going up or down? Posted on 17 Feb
New genetic study to estimate age of whales
Results indicate whether Cook Inlet beluga whales are reproducing much later than initially thought The new epigenetic methodology could revolutionize the way scientists study endangered Cook Inlet beluga whales and provide valuable insights into why the population may not be recovering. Posted on 14 Feb
West Coast Gray Whales unusual mortality event
Decline resembles drop 20 years ago as it declined about 24 percent since 2016 Decline resembles drop 20 years ago, which was followed by an increase. The population of gray whales that migrate along the West Coast has declined about 24 percent since 2016. Posted on 2 Feb
Threats imperil Northeast Pacific killer whales
Vessel strikes may be an "underappreciated but important threat" to endangered orcas Vessel strikes may be an "underappreciated but important threat" to endangered orcas. Human impacts ranging from stray fishhooks to vessel strikes have killed more killer whales, including endangered Southern Resident killer whales Posted on 1 Feb
Condition of seals declined during rapid warming
A new study finds quantitative evidence of climate-related impacts on these predators A new study finds quantitative evidence of climate-related impacts on these typically adaptable, resilient predators. Posted on 30 Jan
New species of Baleen Whale in the Gulf of Mexico
NOAA Fisheries announces scientific research paper that describes the new species NOAA Fisheries announces scientific research paper that describes a new species of baleen whale in the Gulf of Mexico. Posted on 30 Jan
MBW newsletters (top)